Streamlining Radiology Reporting with Generative AI on AWS

Streamlining Radiology Reporting with Generative AI on AWS

Radiology reports are intricate documents that demand expert interpretation and summarization skills. Traditionally, creating these reports is a time-consuming process, requiring years of specialized training. This article, based on a post by Dr. Adewale Akinfaderin, Priya Padate, and Ekta Walia Bhullar, explores an innovative approach using generative AI on AWS to automate the summarization of radiology reports, thereby enhancing efficiency and reducing the potential for errors.

The Challenge in Radiology Reporting

Radiology reports often consist of detailed findings and an ‘impression’ section – a concise summary crucial for clinical decision-making. Manual summarization is laborious and error-prone, underscoring the need for an automated solution.

Solution: Generative AI for Summarization

1. Utilizing Large Language Models (LLMs)

  • The solution involves fine-tuning pre-trained LLMs, specifically the FLAN-T5 XL model available via Amazon SageMaker JumpStart.
  • LLMs are adept at understanding and generating natural language, making them ideal for converting complex medical findings into succinct summaries.

2. Fine-Tuning with Domain-Specific Data

  • The model is fine-tuned using the MIMIC-CXR dataset, consisting of 91,544 free-text radiology reports.
  • This approach tailors the general-purpose LLM for the specialized task of radiology report summarization.

Implementation Steps

Setting Up the Environment

  • The process begins with setting up an AWS SageMaker Studio environment and creating an S3 bucket for data storage.
  • A SageMaker notebook instance is configured for data preparation and model fine-tuning.

Model Fine-Tuning and Deployment

  • The FLAN-T5 XL model is fine-tuned on the chosen dataset.
  • For inference, SageMaker endpoints are created to deploy both pre-trained and fine-tuned models.

Evaluating Model Performance

  • Model outputs are evaluated using ROUGE (Recall-Oriented Understudy for Gisting Evaluation) metrics.
  • These metrics assess the quality of the generated summaries by comparing them with human-produced references.

Benefits of the Proposed Solution

Efficiency in Reporting

Automating the summarization process significantly reduces the time radiologists spend on report writing, allowing them to focus more on diagnosis and patient care.

Enhanced Accuracy

Generative AI models, fine-tuned with domain-specific data, can potentially reduce errors common in manual summarization processes.

Scalability and Versatility

The approach can be expanded to various types of medical imaging reports, including MRI and CT scans, offering broad applicability in radiology.


The use of generative AI for radiology report summarization marks a significant advancement in medical imaging. This AWS-based solution not only enhances the efficiency of radiologists but also contributes to improved clinical decision-making. It represents a forward leap in applying AI to streamline healthcare operations and patient care.